Hinduism is a religious Indian philosophy and religion, and is the most popular one-fifth religion in the world, with over 20 million followers worldwide. The term “Hindu” can also be used to refer to the Hindu religion, the community that comprise the Hindus, and the holy texts of that faith. Hinduism is a naturalistic religion founded on a set of moral codes known as dharma or dhruvras, which derive from the teachings of the Vedas, an ancient Hindu book of texts. The primary elements of Hinduism are mainly the worship of the Hindu gods, the Vedic scriptures, and the tradition of ascetic living, called as yama. Another main constituent of Hinduism is the caste system, with the Hindu poor being categorized as the Brahma (king) castes and the Hindu rich as the Kshar (king) castes.
The original Hindu gods were known as Shiva and Baksha; Shiva was the son of Shiva and Parvati, and Baksha was the daughter of Baksha and Vritra, the Sun God. The concept of dharma or discipline derived from the Hindu scriptures; that is, a code of conduct prescribed by the priests of a particular religion, school, or sect, which applies to all followers of that religion in their private lives and interactions with others, has developed into the complex structure of modern Hinduism. Dharma includes ritualistic worship of Hindu deities, adherence to sacred ritual practices, and daily practice of good deeds and social norms for the purpose of achieving write (ordination); all of which are meant to elevate humanity to a state of consciousness, blissful atman, or darwa (enlightenment).
Despite its complexities, Hinduism has achieved widespread appeal due to its emphasis on asceticism and a monastic lifestyle. Hindu laypeople and clergy have been known to live in caves and huts, for example. Hindu philosophers and scientists, such as Sir Alfred Wallace and Lord Kelvin, developed concepts of relativity and scientific laws of nature without using the science of classical languages. Hinduism has been considered by some to be the science of spirituality due to its emphasis on meditation, devotional service, and its rejection of materialism.